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Metered-Dose Inhaler, How to Use with a Spacer: References

Mullen A. Dry powder inhaler (DPI). National Jewish Health. https://www.nationaljewish.org/treatment-programs/medications/asthma-medications/devices/dry-powder. Updated November 1, 2016. Accessed May 2018.

Dekhuijzen PN, Bjermer L, Lavorini F, et al. Guidance on handheld inhalers in asthma and COPD guidelines. Respir Med. 2014 Mar 1. pii: S0954-6111(14)00088-2. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2014.02.013. PMID: 24636812.

Selroos O. Dry-powder inhalers in acute asthma. Ther Deliv. 2014 Jan;5(1):69-81. doi: 10.4155/tde.13.132. PMID: 24341818

Salvi S, Gogtay J, Aggarwal B. Use of breath-actuated inhalers in patients with asthma and COPD - an advance in inhalational therapy: a systematic review. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2014 Feb;8(1):89-99. doi: 10.1586/17476348.2014.854168. Epub 2013 Dec 10. PMID: 2432561

Sleath B, Ayala GX, Gillette C, et al. Provider demonstration and assessment of child device technique during pediatric asthma visits. Pediatrics 2011; 127:642.

Dry powder inhalers. American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/conditions-a-to-z-search/Dry-Powder-Inhalers.aspx. Accessed May 2018

Rottier BL, Rubin BK. Asthma medication delivery: mists and myths. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2013 Jun;14(2):112-8; quiz 118, 137-8. doi: 10.1016/j.prrv.2013.02.013. Epub 2013 Mar 21. PMID: 2352298.

Spacer instructions. The Asthma Center. http://www.theasthmacenter.org/index.php/disease_information/asthma/using_special_devices/spacer_instructions/. Accessed May 2018.

Roche N, Dekhuijzen PN. The Evolution of pressurized metered-dose inhalers from early to modern devices. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2016 Jan 29. PMID: 26824873.

Nikander K, Nicholls C, Denyer J, Pritchard J. The evolution of spacers and valved holding chambers. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2014 Aug;27 Suppl 1:S4-23. doi: 10.1089/jamp.2013.1076. PMID: 25054481.

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