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Metered-Dose Inhaler, How to Use with a Spacer: References

Mullen A. Dry powder inhaler (DPI). National Jewish Health. Updated November 1, 2016. Accessed May 2018.

Dekhuijzen PN, Bjermer L, Lavorini F, et al. Guidance on handheld inhalers in asthma and COPD guidelines. Respir Med. 2014 Mar 1. pii: S0954-6111(14)00088-2. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2014.02.013. PMID: 24636812.

Selroos O. Dry-powder inhalers in acute asthma. Ther Deliv. 2014 Jan;5(1):69-81. doi: 10.4155/tde.13.132. PMID: 24341818

Salvi S, Gogtay J, Aggarwal B. Use of breath-actuated inhalers in patients with asthma and COPD - an advance in inhalational therapy: a systematic review. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2014 Feb;8(1):89-99. doi: 10.1586/17476348.2014.854168. Epub 2013 Dec 10. PMID: 2432561

Sleath B, Ayala GX, Gillette C, et al. Provider demonstration and assessment of child device technique during pediatric asthma visits. Pediatrics 2011; 127:642.

Dry powder inhalers. American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology. Accessed May 2018

Rottier BL, Rubin BK. Asthma medication delivery: mists and myths. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2013 Jun;14(2):112-8; quiz 118, 137-8. doi: 10.1016/j.prrv.2013.02.013. Epub 2013 Mar 21. PMID: 2352298.

Spacer instructions. The Asthma Center. Accessed May 2018.

Roche N, Dekhuijzen PN. The Evolution of pressurized metered-dose inhalers from early to modern devices. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2016 Jan 29. PMID: 26824873.

Nikander K, Nicholls C, Denyer J, Pritchard J. The evolution of spacers and valved holding chambers. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2014 Aug;27 Suppl 1:S4-23. doi: 10.1089/jamp.2013.1076. PMID: 25054481.

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