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Flu Vaccine

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KEY POINTS

  • The flu vaccine can help keep your child from getting the flu. Your child cannot get the flu from the flu vaccine.
  • The vaccine is changed each year to protect against the kinds of flu virus that are expected during the next flu season. Your child can still get the vaccine after the flu season starts to help protect against the flu.
  • It is important for your child to get the flu vaccine every year.

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What is the flu vaccine?

The flu vaccine can help keep you from getting the flu (influenza).

Flu is caused by a virus. When you have the flu, the virus is in your mucus and saliva and can spread to others when you cough or sneeze. People can also get the flu if they touch something with the flu virus on it, such as cups, doorknobs, and hands, and then touch their mouth, nose, or eyes.

Outbreaks of flu occur every year, usually in late fall and winter. Flu symptoms tend to start suddenly.

A child age 6 months or older should get a flu vaccine every year, before the start of flu season. It’s important to try to prevent flu for several reasons:

  • Most children with the flu feel sick for a few days and then get better. However, the flu sometimes leads to other infections such as ear, sinus, and lung infections. Some children get very sick with the flu and may need to be in the hospital.
  • Your child may miss several days of school because of the flu.
  • Very young children, children whose immune systems are weak, and children with long-term medical problems, such as asthma or diabetes, are at risk for more severe symptoms or problems if they get the flu. Some children will die from the flu and its complications.
  • Even if your child doesn't get very sick with the flu, your child could spread it to someone who could have severe symptoms or problems if they get the flu.

Flu season usually starts in October and lasts until May. It takes about 2 weeks before the flu vaccine can protect your child against the flu. The vaccine is changed each year to protect against the kinds of flu virus that are expected to be most common during the next flu season. Your child can still get the vaccine after the flu season starts to help protect against the flu.

How is the flu vaccine given?

The flu vaccine can be given as a shot in the arm for older kids, teens and adults, a shot in the thigh for babies and small children, or as nasal spray for some people.

How does it work?

The vaccine exposes your child’s immune system to parts of or a weakened form of the flu virus. The immune system is the body’s defense against infection. Your child’s body reacts to the vaccine by making special cells (antibodies) that can fight the virus.

The vaccine itself will not give your child the flu. However, if your child was exposed to the flu just before getting the vaccine, your child may still get sick. If your child does get the flu after getting the vaccine, your child will not get as sick as he or she would without the vaccine.

The flu vaccine types include:

  • A shot for people age 6 months and older
  • A high-dose shot for people over age 65
  • A shot for people with a severe egg allergy who are 18 to 49 years of age

The flu shot can be given with a needle and syringe or sometimes with a jet injector.

The nasal mist form of the vaccine is available to children starting at age two and for adults up to age 49. This is a live but weakened vaccine. It cannot be given to people with certain chronic medical conditions.

The nasal mist form of the vaccine is available to children starting at age two and for adults up to age 49. This is a live but weakened vaccine. It cannot be given to people with certain chronic medical conditions.

Ask your healthcare provider which flu vaccine is right for your child. Some children between the ages of 6 months and 9 years need 2 doses of the flu vaccine. Your child’s healthcare provider can tell you if 2 doses are recommended for your child.

Who should get the flu vaccine?

Adults and children 6 months or older should get the flu vaccine. This is especially important for young children and children with chronic health problems.

Some children should not get the flu vaccine. Talk with your child’s healthcare provider before your child gets the vaccine if your child:

  • Is sick with a fever
  • Is on long-term aspirin treatment
  • Has ever had a severe allergic reaction to eggs or to the flu vaccine. Small amounts of egg protein are used to make some kinds of flu vaccine. Ask about the egg-free vaccine.

It’s OK to get the vaccine if your child has a cold.

Thimerosal is a preservative used in some flu vaccines. Thimerosal-free vaccine is available if your child is allergic to thimerosal or you are concerned about its safety. The nasal flu vaccine does not contain thimerosal.

What are the side effects of the vaccine?

You cannot get the flu from the flu vaccine. The flu vaccine can sometimes cause minor side effects such as:

  • Soreness, redness, or swelling where the shot was given
  • Mild fever
  • Body aches

These symptoms may start a few hours after the vaccination and last a day or two.

Serious problems from the flu vaccine, such as severe allergic reactions, are very rare.

Developed by Change Healthcare.
Pediatric Advisor 2019.4 published by Change Healthcare.
Last modified: 2019-10-22
Last reviewed: 2019-10-14
This content is reviewed periodically and is subject to change as new health information becomes available. The information is intended to inform and educate and is not a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional.
© 2018 Change Healthcare LLC and/or one of its subsidiaries
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